Shahadah is the third pilar of Islam.It is a saying professing monotheism and accepting Muhammad as Allah’s messenger. The shahadah is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: (ašhadu an) lā ilāha illá l-Lāhi wa (ashhadu 'anna) Muhammadan rasūlu l-Lāhi “(I profess that) there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.” Also, it is said that a dying person should recite this declaration of faith. It is recited during Azaan (call to prayer). When a person wishes to convert religions, they should recite this affirmation and believe in it.
Salat is the Islamic prayer. Salat consists of five daily prayers:
Isha'a. Fajr is performed at dawn, Dhuhr is a noon prayer, Asr is performed in the afternoon, Maghrib is the sunset prayer, and Isha'a is the evening prayer. Each prayer consists of a certain amount of
rakaāt. A prayer either consists of two, three, or four rakaāt. All of these prayers are recited while facing the
Ka'bah in Mecca. Muslims must wash themselves before prayer. The prayer is accompanied by a series of set positions, including bowing with hands on knees, standing, prostrating and sitting in a special position (not on the heels, nor on the buttocks, with the toes pointing towards Makkah), usually with one foot tucked under the body.
Fasting is an obligatory act during the month of
Ramadan. Muslims must abstain from food, drink and sexual intercourse from dawn to dusk during this month, and are to be especially mindful of other sins. Fasting is necessary for every Muslim over the age of 11. The fast is meant to allow Muslims to seek nearness to Allah, to express their gratitude to and dependence on him, to atone for their past sins, and to remind them of the needy. During Ramadan, Muslims are also expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam by refraining from violence, anger, envy, greed, lust, profane language and gossip, and to try to get along with fellow Muslims better.
In addition, all obscene and irreligious sights and sounds are to be avoided. Fasting during Ramadan is obligatory, but is forbidden for several groups for whom it would be very dangerous and excessively problematic. These include pre-pubescent children, those with a medical condition such as diabetes, elderly people, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Observing fasts is not permitted for menstruating women. Other individuals for whom it is considered acceptable not to fast are those who are ill or travelling. Missing fasts usually must be made up for soon afterward, although the exact requirements vary according to circumstance.